米国での新規事項の取り扱い（１１２条違反 vs １３２条違反）
クレームに新規事項を追加した場合、「新規事項の追加」という拒絶は来ません。代わりに、「補正後のクレームは、１１２条の記述要件（written description requirement)を満たしてない」というrejectionがきます。
2163.06 Relationship of Written Description Requirement to New Matter
Lack of written description is an issue that generally arises with respect to the subject matter of a claim. If an applicant amends or attempts to amend the abstract, specification or drawings of an application, an issue of new matter will arise if the content of the amendment is not described in the application as filed. Stated another way, information contained in any one of the specification, claims or drawings of the application as filed may be added to any other part of the application without introducing new matter.
There are two statutory provisions that prohibit the introduction of new matter: 35 U.S.C. 132 – No amendment shall introduce new matter into the disclosure of the invention; and, similarly providing for a reissue application, 35 U.S.C. 251 – No new matter shall be introduced into the application for reissue.
I. TREATMENT OF NEW MATTER
If new subject matter is added to the disclosure, whether it be in the abstract, the specification, or the drawings, the examiner should object to the introduction of new matter under 35 U.S.C. 132 or 251 as appropriate, and require applicant to cancel the new matter. If new matter is added to the claims, the examiner should reject the claims under 35 U.S.C. 112, first paragraph – written description requirement. In re Rasmussen, 650 F.2d 1212, 211 USPQ 323 (CCPA 1981). The examiner should still consider the subject matter added to the claim in making rejections based on prior art since the new matter rejection may be overcome by applicant.
In an instance in which the claims have not been amended, per se, but the specification has been amended to add new matter, a rejection of the claims under 35 U.S.C. 112, first paragraph should be made whenever any of the claim limitations are affected by the added material.
When an amendment is filed in reply to an objection or rejection based on 35 U.S.C. 112, first paragraph, a study of the entire application is often necessary to determine whether or not “new matter” is involved. Applicant should therefore specifically point out the support for any amendments made to the disclosure.
II. REVIEW OF NEW MATTER OBJEC-TIONS AND/OR REJECTIONS
A rejection of claims is reviewable by the Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences, whereas an objection and requirement to delete new matter is subject to supervisory review by petition under 37 CFR 1.181. If both the claims and specification contain new matter either directly or indirectly, and there has been both a rejection and objection by the examiner, the issue becomes appealable and should not be decided by petition.
III. CLAIMED SUBJECT MATTER NOT DISCLOSED IN REMAINDER OF SPECIFICATION
The claims as filed in the original specification are part of the disclosure and therefore, if an application as originally filed contains a claim disclosing material not disclosed in the remainder of the specification, the applicant may amend the specification to include the claimed subject matter. In re Benno, 768 F.2d 1340, 226 USPQ 683 (Fed. Cir. 1985). Form Paragraph 7.44 may be used where originally claimed subject matter lacks proper antecedent basis in the specification. See MPEP § 608.01(o).
35 U.S.C. 112 Specification.
The specification shall contain a written description of the invention, and of the manner and process of making and using it, in such full, clear, concise, and exact terms as to enable any person skilled in the art to which it pertains, or with which it is most nearly connected, to make and use the same, and shall set forth the best mode contemplated by the inventor of carrying out his invention.
35 U.S.C. 132 Notice of rejection; reexamination.
(a) Whenever, on examination, any claim for a patent is rejected, or any objection or requirement made, the Director shall notify the applicant thereof, stating the reasons for such rejection, or objection or requirement, together with such information and references as may be useful in judging of the propriety of continuing the prosecution of his application; and if after receiving such notice, the applicant persists in his claim for a patent, with or without amendment, the application shall be reexamined. No amendment shall introduce new matter into the disclosure of the invention.